In India, becoming a Ham Radio operator is not that difficult task. According to WPC (Wireless Planning and Coordination) Wing of the Government of India, any Indian national above 12 years of age can appear for the ASOC (Amateur Station Operator’s Certificate) exam conducted by them. Once you clear the exam, you have to apply for the license by paying the appropriate fees.
HAM_Instructions.pdf is a Government of India web link that has all the detailed information you need to know.
For more, you can visit – https://vigyanprasar.gov.in/science-communication-programs/ham-radio/how-to-go-for-ham-radio/detailed-procedures-related-to-application-for-a-ham-radio-licence/. Here you will find the details about the procedure to apply for this examination.
A rig is a device or equipment designed for a particular purpose. A Radio Rig is station equipment used for radio communication. In case of Amateur Radio Operator, it can be HF, VHF, or UHF. Generally, radio rig is a station or a base station equipment that can be professional or homebrewed.
The radio shack is a setup of Ham equipment at any Ham QTH. A room or a structure used for housing radio equipment is called Radio Shack. Generally, a shack consists of HF, VHF, UHF radios (all or whichever is available) arranged in ready-to-operate condition along with few handheld radios or walkie talkies and the other necessary equipment like power supply, batteries, tuners, SWR meters etc.